Canadian and US Bond Yields Fell, Increasing Risk of An “Abrupt” Rise: Desjardins

Canadian (and US) bond yields made an abrupt decline over the past few weeks. This is contrary to what experts had forecast, but it hasn’t changed their tune. In fact, Desjardins chief economist Jimmy Jean said it reinforces his belief.

In a note to clients this week, he outlined the disconnect between yields and the economy. Bond yields are falling, despite an improved macroeconomic environment. This indicates overly easy policy, which central banks have publicly expressed concerns over. If they don’t reel in the stimulus soon, they’ll be forced to make much more abrupt movements. That can trigger a more abrupt climb to mortgage rates — as early as the end of this year.

Bond Yields, Supply, and Inflation

Bond yields are based on supply and demand, like most market functions. As demand for bonds increases relative to the supply, the yield (or interest paid) falls. If everyone wants to lend you money, why on earth would you pay more interest, right?

If demand for bonds is low relative to the capital supply, the yields rise. If you lend someone cash who may not be able to pay you back, you’re going to want a risk premium. Pretty straightforward, and it’s a concept even your local loan shark gets.

Inflation is the other important thing that needs to be understood here. Inflation rises when there’s excess capital in the system, going after the same goods. Higher inflation is a sign the economy is running too hot. Low inflation is when purchasing is slow, leading to an excess supply of goods. This is typical of a recession.

There are currently two contrary market trends — low yields and high inflation. Central banks are crushing yields by flooding the bond market with cash. They have blinders on. All they can see is high unemployment and GDP below pre-pandemic levels.

Their models don’t accommodate for the fact job vacancies are in excess of job seekers. They don’t understand that people have enough money to pause and choose a new job. It isn’t built to consider GDP is lower due to restrictions on activity, not a breakdown of demand. Central banks run a very mechanical system, disconnected from reality. 

Consequently, central banks have been suppressing yields. So much that mortgage rates are currently negative in real terms. Kind of like pushing a square peg into a round hole. They’ve been pumping the gas on stimulus to get unemployment to recover… but they don’t really understand what “recover” means. This has crushed yields, and caused nothing but higher inflation. 

Many strategists are surprised this hasn’t ended yet. Now central banks are making subtle acknowledgments that countries may need less ease. This has made economists even more certain that higher yields are coming.

Bond Yields Have Been Falling Recently, Despite The Improved Economy

Excess ease from central banks and investors with lockdown fears pushed yields lower. Canada’s 5-year Federal Bond rate fell from 0.99% in Q1 2021, down 0.97% in the second quarter. Not a huge slip, but the US went from 1.75% in Q1 to below 1.2% in August. Some Canadians have seen this, and think it means they’ll take a dive as well. “A number of observers, ourselves included, have been surprised to see long-term bond yields continue to plunge since the start of the summer,” said Jean.

The disconnect between high inflation and low yields has the US considering a taper. In July, the Reserve adjusted its statement to recognize progress on the recovery. Desjardins points to Powell saying he wants to see employment firm before they taper QE.

Employment data in August confirmed the US job market has mostly recovered. The unemployment rate fell to 5.4% in the last report, with 10 million job vacancies. There have never been more unfilled jobs in the US, and it’s far in excess of job seekers.

“Recent events have bolstered our expectations that the [US] Fed will begin to gradually taper its quantitative easing before the end of the year and start to raise its key rates in late 2022. We still expect the first key rate increase in Canada in October 2022,” he wrote to clients. Adding, “central bankers are signaling greater concern over inflation and an eagerness to begin normalizing monetary policies.”

RBC expressed a similar sentiment a few weeks ago. They said the prospect of the US tapering ease puts Canada in a better position to ease, as well. One concern had been the loonie would become too strong, impacting exports. If the US is easing at the same time as Canada, it becomes much less of a concern. Their exchange would remain relatively balanced with both tapering ease.

Canadian Bond Yields Forecast To Fall This Quarter, Surge By Year-End

“The drop in bond yields in recent months has only exacerbated inflationary risks and could even force central banks to speed up monetary tightening to keep the economy from overheating,” said Jean. 

The institution expects the current quarter (Q3) to continue its taper. By the next quarter (Q4) they see an abrupt climb in yields. The 5-year government bond is forecast to taper to 0.95% in Q3, before hitting 1.15% in Q4. By next year, they’re forecasting 1.85% yields for Q4 2022. Almost a doubling of current rates is quite the climb. It looks like they see yields rising in a bit of a rush.

Canadian 5-Year Government Bond Yield Forecast

The actual and forecast yields for the Government of Canada’s 5-year bond.

Source: Desjardins; Better Dwelling.

Important to note, most of the increases in these yields are not due to a rate hike. They don’t see the first overnight rate hike until the end of next year. However, they see bond yields climbing much faster — starting as soon as the end of this year. This is due entirely to a reduction in stimulus, and higher inflation. The former had been used to taper rates below its natural market mechanics. Tapering and eliminating the “ease” would cause rates to rise to natural levels.

“… the risk of a more abrupt adjustment to bond yields shouldn’t be overlooked,” the chief economist ends.

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  • Bob Walter 3 years ago

    Bonds must be one of the most manipulated things in the financial market right now.
    That is the whole purpose of quantative easing, the central bankers buy bonds and treasuries and the higher the demand, the higher the bond price, the lower the interest yield.

    Its hard to make any useful prediction when central bank intervention can flip the prices.

  • Charlie F 3 years ago

    A bit of sense in a sea of stupidity. Central bankers have become delusional and simply put there is no adult in the room. They are drunk on their own success of avoiding a meltdown and now feel they can print money ad infinitum with no consequences. Like a heroin addict the bonds need their next infusion of cash to keep their returns high and interest rates low. It will not end well, addictions never do and weaning the market off of easy (free) money will cause years of pain.

  • david 3 years ago

    I work for a major US financial firm and read papers from our macro, interest rate analysts. Their message is clear, 10Y yield will be at around 1.8% by year end. Powell will change his tune in September and announce tapering in December. That won’t make governments or quality companies go bankrupt at all, but people should not expect lower mortgage rates.

  • Holton 3 years ago

    I said many times, we are going to inflate our way out of this mess. Thats the least damaging way out of this, don’t even bet a penny on anyone in power to rise rates anytime soon. We are not there yet.

    • alex 3 years ago

      What you’re effectively saying “We will print more money to pay off our existing debt from previous money that we printed!”

      If this actually worked, then economies would have been doing it with success for centuries, but it leads to disaster every single time. Inflation is never a solution.

      Japan had kept rates very low before their economy collapsed, but all it takes is for demand for credit to evaporate. By keeping rates low, reducing credit quality standards, and pulling years and years of demand forward, that is the road we are headed down here in Canada.

      You’re free to preach this nonsense on this platform as much as you want, but you will be wrong every single time.

      • D 3 years ago

        Unredeemed notes and war bonds from 1812 are still backed up by the central bank as is Canada’s currency, and its individual bank currency before 1867. If Canada kills its dollar and replaces it with a new currency that’ll destroy savers and Canada will cease being a first world country.

      • Holton 3 years ago

        Thats like saying burning a little wood to keep warm will burn down the house everytime. Instead we should, during a winter storm tear down the house to rebuild it into a mansion? A small amount of inflation over time is going to solve this problem. The fact you think single digit inflation over time is going to lead to disaster is kind funny. Kinda reminds me of a child saying don’t play with fire because its dangerous while the adults are having BBQ.

  • Flipg 3 years ago

    We cant “inflate our way out of this mess. ” Inflation will only make matters worse.

    “I own a million dollar condo but can’t afford a beer,” (an actual lyric for a song I heard once on Co-op Radio) – will become our National Anthem. Perhaps it already has.

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